Men 'face MORE discrimination than women': Global study claims males receive the raw end of the deal with harsher punishments for the same crime, compulsory military service and more deaths at work

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Women are better off in more countries than men are, a new study has found.  
A method that assesses the forms of hardship and discrimination facing men and women has revealed males have it harder in 91 countries out of 134.
Women were disadvantaged in only 43. 
A study looked at 6.8 billion people around the world and scientists developed a new way of measuring gender inequality. 
The UK, the US and Australia all discriminate against men more whereas Italy, Israel and China are harder environments for women, according to the study. 
Researchers say this is due to men receiving harsher punishments for the same crime, compulsory military service and more occupational deaths than women. 
A study looked at 6.8 billion people around the world from 134 nations and developed a new way of measuring gender inequality. It found that women are better off in more countries (stock)
A study looked at 6.8 billion people around the world from 134 nations and developed a new way of measuring gender inequality. It found that women are better off in more countries (stock)
The study was carried out by the University of Essex and the University of Missouri-Columbia and published in the journal Plos One
Scientists created a database which deciphers a nation's discrimination called the Basic Index of Gender Inequality (BIGI).
The closer the BIGI score is to zero the greater the level of equality is in the country. 
If it is a negative number it indicates females are better off and if the BIGI score is positive it shows males are less discriminated against.  
The index is based on three factors: educational opportunities, healthy life expectancy and overall life satisfaction.  
Professor Gijsbert Stoet, from the Department of Psychology at Essex, explained: 'We're not saying that women in highly developed countries are not experiencing disadvantages in some aspects of their lives. 
'What we are saying is that an ideal measure of gender equality is not biased to the disadvantages of either gender. 
'Doing so, we find a different picture to the one commonly presented in the media.'
Researchers found the most developed countries in the world come closest to achieving true gender equality but there was a slight advantage for women. 
Women in the least developed countries however, nearly always fall behind men.
The authors of the research say this is predominantly due to fewer opportunities to get a good education.

WHAT IS THE GENDER PAY GAP?

On average, men working in the UK earn between 9 per cent more than women in the same profession, numbers released by the Office for National Statistics show.
But in many professions the gulf is far larger - with female bank managers earning on average £39,995 a year - over a quarter (28.6 per cent) less than men on £58,070.
The data reveals that public sector staff are still on an average higher wage than those in the private sector - taking home £599 a week compared to £532.   
Male farmers take home more than 20 per cent more than women - earning on average £10,59 an hour rather than £8.39 an hour given to females.
The overwhelming majority of professions tend to pay more to men than women.
And research conducted in October 2017 showed that just three jobs do not have a gender pay gap at all - bar staff, medical and dental technicians, and waiters. 
From April 2018, all employers with more than 250 staff have been required by law to publish their gender pay gap online.
Figures also show that average weekly earnings for full-time employees in the UK were £550, up 2.2 per cent from £539 in 2016 and the highest rise since 2008. 
TUC (Trade Union Congress) comments say women are essentially working for free for the first 67 days of the year.
Justine Greening, women and equalities minister, said: 'Eliminating the gender pay gap is key to building a stronger economy where everyone plays by the same rules.
'It is simply good business sense to recognise the enormous potential of women and to take action to nurture and progress female talent.'
She added: 'I'm now calling on employers across the country to get on with publishing their gender pay gap. They have until 31st March to do so.
'By shining a light on where there are gaps, employers can take action and make sure that we are harnessing the talents and skills of men and women‎.'  

Nearly eight out of 10 companies and public sector bodies pay men more than women in the UK, a report from April 2018 found
Nearly eight out of 10 companies and public sector bodies pay men more than women in the UK, a report from April 2018 found
There is an equal amount of nations with medium-level development that see men and women falling behind. 
On balance, they say, the men's disadvantage is largely due to a shorter healthy lifespan.  
Professor David Geary, from the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Missouri in the United States, added: 'We sought to correct the bias towards women's issues within existing measures and at the same time develop a simple measure that is useful in any country in the world, regardless of their level of economic development.' 
The University of Essex, which performed the research, made headlines in 2016 when it gave female staff a one-off pay rise in order to close the gender pay gap. 
It moved female professors up three newly created pay levels to raise their average salaries to the same as their male counterparts.    
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WHAT NATIONS ARE BEST FOR EQUALITY AND WHICH SEX IS BETTER OFF?
RANKNATIONWHO IS BETTER OFFBIGI SCORE
1ItalyM0.00021
2IsraelM0.000626
3Saudi ArabiaF-0.001554
4AzerbaijanF-0.002668
5IndonesiaF-0.003089
6SingaporeM0.003147
7TurkeyF-0.006155
8ChinaM0.00626
9MacedoniaM0.006834
10MaltaF-0.007316
11SwitzerlandF-0.007938
12BahrainF-0.007938
13MadagascarM0.009967
14ZimbabweF-0.010275
15KenyaM0.011129
16BelgiumF-0.011181
17GuatemalaM0.012198
18AlbaniaF-0.012889
19BulgariaF-0.012899
20GermanyF-0.012993
21MontenegroF-0.013121
22Bosnia and HerzegovinaF-0.013867
23CanadaF-0.014173
24Great BritainF-0.014545
25Kyrgyz RepublicF-0.015089
26SwedenF-0.015749
27NetherlandsF-0.01585
28Bolivia (Plurinational State of)M0.016475
29GeorgiaF-0.016536
30SerbiaF-0.016696
31LebanonF-0.016971
32New ZealandF-0.017086
33AustriaF-0.017387
34IrelandF-0.017437
35IcelandF-0.017683
36Czech Rep.F-0.018326
37PeruM0.018633
38GreeceF-0.019161
39NorwayF-0.019498
40EcuadorF-0.020118
41Slovak RepublicF-0.021043
42LuxembourgF-0.021134
43FranceF-0.021771
44SloveniaF-0.02206
45United Arab EmiratesF-0.022441
46DenmarkF-0.023474
47HungaryF-0.023612
48MauritiusF-0.023808
49AustraliaF-0.024204
50RomaniaF-0.024549
51UkraineF-0.024807
52CyprusF-0.025501
53VietnamF-0.025981
54El SalvadorF-0.026453
55BurundiM0.027321
56CroatiaF-0.028319
57Iran (Islamic Republic of)F-0.028983
58SpainF-0.029903
59KuwaitF-0.031057
60Moldova (Republic of)F-0.032404
61United States of AmericaF-0.032937
62JordanF-0.03303
63ChileF-0.033213
64EgyptM0.033329
65MexicoF-0.035445
66MalaysiaF-0.035954
67KazakhstanF-0.035984
68ParaguayF-0.035997
69RwandaM0.036707
70BrazilF-0.036775
71SyriaM0.036803
72FinlandF-0.038021
73BangladeshF-0.038924
74RussiaF-0.039489
75BotswanaF-0.039531
76TajikistanM0.039583
77LithuaniaF-0.039616
78Korea (Republic of)F-0.041126
79AlgeriaM0.042841
80JapanF-0.042856
81Costa RicaF-0.043729
82LatviaF-0.045333
83BelarusF-0.045669
84UgandaM0.045679
85HondurasF-0.046228
86EstoniaF-0.046312
87BelizeF-0.047942
88Trinidad and TobagoF-0.048587
89PanamaF-0.049067
90CambodiaM0.049407
91PolandF-0.050899
92Tanzania (United Republic of)M0.05197
93TunisiaM0.053817
94CameroonM0.053832
95MoroccoM0.053859
96GhanaM0.054422
97ColombiaF-0.055583
98South AfricaF-0.055597
99PortugalF-0.056756
100Sri LankaF-0.057614
101JamaicaF-0.058214
102NamibiaF-0.058658
103QatarF-0.059365
104ArgentinaF-0.059598
105ThailandF-0.061156
106ArmeniaF-0.065226
107Dominican Rep.F-0.066269
108Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)F-0.066533
109NicaraguaF-0.06813
110MalawiM0.071353
111UruguayF-0.073659
112MongoliaF-0.076926
113AngolaM0.077184
114NepalM0.081468
115ZambiaM0.082919
116SurinameF-0.084422
117IndiaM0.084774
118YemenM0.090227
119MauritaniaM0.090505
120NigeriaM0.090757
121PhilippinesF-0.09874
122BhutanM0.109755
123SenegalM0.110049
124PakistanM0.116173
125EthiopiaM0.116469
126Cote d?IvoireM0.119953
127Burkina FasoM0.12362
128MozambiqueM0.128963
129LesothoF-0.152642
130GuineaM0.153464
131LiberiaM0.157644
132MaliM0.160473
133BeninM0.187256
134ChadM0.231138

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